Reading Seminar on Nepal's Development Pathways With Bandana Gyawali

- Bandana Gyawali

Discussion Type: Reading Seminar | Date: 29 Mar 2018 | Time: 10:00 AM


Reading Seminar on Nepal's Development Pathways
With Bandana Gyawali

Organized by Martin Chautari

Spread across eight sessions, this seminar introduces the reader to Nepal's development trajectory from the pre-bikas era to recent post-conflict trends. The aim is to engage with bikas approaches at specific political periods such that the reader is able to locate the ideological roots of various bikas practices and situate them within a larger development discourse. The first session will focus on broader development literature. The remaining sessions will examine primary or secondary documents in proximity to Nepal specific literature and place them within global development thinking. The aim is not to provide a comprehensive reading of development literature but to provide readers an illustration of the ideological underpinnings of bikas. The assigned readings are as given below with the possibility of some minor changes as the seminar progresses.

Bandana Gyawali is currently a researcher at Martin Chautari. She has submitted her PhD dissertation "Ambiguous Bikas: History of the Concept of Development in Nepal, 1900 – 2006" to the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki. Based on Nepal specific archival sources, her research focuses on the history of ideas and early market history.

Seminar dates: March 29 to May 17, 2018.  The seminar will be held every Thursday morning from 7:30 to 10:00.

Seminar Hall, Martin Chautari
27, Jeetjung Marg, Thapathali, Kathmandu [Location map]

Course fee: NRs 4000

Application deadline:  15 March 2018

For registration please contact Martin Chautari office and pay for the course
Tel: 01 4238050, 01 4102027

1. Development pathways: broad trends from the 1950s to the 2000s

  • Martinussen, John. 1997[1995]. Chapters 1, 2 and 3. In Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development. London: Zed Books.
  • Rist, Gilbert. 2014[1997]. Chapter 12. In The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed Books.
  • Escobar, Arthuro. 2015. Degrowth, postdevelopment, and transitions: a preliminary conversation. Sustain Sci (2015) 10: 451-462.
  • Aghajanian, Alia and Jeremy Allouche. 2016. Introduction: Development Studies– Past, Present and Future.In Institute of Development Studies Bulletin: Transforming Development Knowledge 47(2): 1-12.
  • Sharma, Sudhindra. 2017. Trickle to torrent to irrelevance? Six decades of foreign aid in Nepal. In Aid, Technology and Development: The Lessons from Nepal. Dipak Gyawali, Michael Thompson and Marco Verweij, ed., pp. 54-74 .New York: Routledge.

2. The pre-bikas period

  • Shrestha, Bishnulal. 2001 v.s. Udyog Mahima. Kathmandu: Gharelu Elam Prachar Adda.
  • Regmi, Shiva. 2013. Udami Banaune Udyogko Prayas. Media Adhyan8: 91-107.
  • Gyawali, Bandana. 2017. Nepal's Pre-Bikas Encounters with the West: Sabhyata and Unnati as Precursors to Development. Studies in Nepali History and Society 22(2): 227-260.
  • Zachariah, Benjamin. 2012[2005]. Chapter 2. In Developing India: An Intellectual and Social History, c. 1930-50. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Cowen, Michael and Robert. W. Shenton. 2005[1996]. Chapter 1. In Doctrines of Development. New York: Routledge

3. Bikas during the 1950s

  • Mihaly, Eugene. Bramer. 2009[1996]. Chapter 4 and 6.  In Foreign Aid and Politics in Nepal: A Case Study. Lalitpur: Himal Books.
  • Robertson, Tom. Forthcoming. Front Line of the Cold War”: the U.S. and Point Four Development Programs in Cold War Nepal, 1950-1953.
  • Rappleye, Jeremy. Forthcoming. Origins of the Faith: the untold story of Hugh Wood, American development assistance in the 1950s, and Nepal’s modern education system.
  • Gill, Peter. 2009. The Politics of Land Reform in Nepal: 1951–1964. Studies in Nepali History and Society 14(2): 217–259.
  • Fujikura, Tatsuro. 2013. Chapter 3. In Discourses of Awareness: Development, Social Movements and the Practices of Freedom in Nepal. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari.
  • Rist, Gilbert. 2014[1997]. Chapter 4. In The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed Books.

4. Development during the Panchayat decades

  • Decentralization Act 1982
  • Schloss, Aran. 1983. Stages of Development and the Uses of Planning: Some Nepali Experiences. Asian Survey 23(10): 1115-1127.
  • Pradhananga, Aishworyalal. 1995. Nepalma Yojana: Yojanako Saidhantik Pakshyasamet. Lalitpur: Sajha Prakashan.
  • Clarke, Graham. 1997. Development (Vikās) in Nepal: Mana from Heaven. In Les habitants du toit du monde: étudesrecueillies en hommage à Alexander W. Macdonald: 583-608. Nanterre : Sociétéd'ethnologie.
  • Linda, Stone [1989].  Cultural Crossroads of Community Participation in Development: A Case from Nepal. Human Organization 48(3): 206-213.
  • Rist, Gilbert. 2014[1997]. Chapter 8. In The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed Books.

5. Nepal's neo-liberal experiences

  • World Bank Structural Adjustment Project (
  • Mahat, Ram Sharan. 2005. Chapter 5. In Defence of Democracy: Dynamics and Fault Lines of Nepal's Political Economy. New Delhi: Adroit.
  • Pandey, Devendra Raj. 2011[2002]. Chapter 13. In Development and Donors: Essays from Nepal. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari. 
  • Rankin, Katharine Nelson. 2004. Chapter 4 and 7. In The Cultural Politics of Markets: Economic Liberalization and Social Change in Nepal. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Gyawali, Dipak and Juhani Koponen. 2004. Missionary zeal on retreat. Or, the strange ephemerality of the Bara Forest Management Plan. In Aid Under Stress: Water, Forests and Finnish Support in Nepal. Sudhindra Sharma, Juhani Koponen, Dipak Gyawali, Ajay Dixit, ed., pp. 115-162. Lalitpur: Himal Books.
  • Bello, Walden. 1994. Chapter 5, 6 and 7. In Dark Victory: the United States and Global Poverty. Oakland: Food First Book

6. I/NGO's and development

  • Acharya, Meena. 1997. Non-government Organization (NGOs) – led development in Nepal. In Development Practices in Nepal. Krishna Bhattachan and Chaitanya Mishra, eds., pp. 69-99. Kathmandu: Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University.
  • "Chintan" Gopal Siwakoti. 2000. Foreign Intervention in Politics through NGOs: A Case of the Left in Nepal. In Development NGOs facing the 21st century: Perspectives from South Asia. Juha Varotl, Marko Ulvila, Farhad Hossain and Tek Nath Dhakal, eds., pp. 134-143. Kathmandu: Institute of Human Development.
  • Tamang, Seira. 2002. Civilizing Civil Society: Donors and Democratic Space. Studies in Nepali History and Society 7(2): 309–353.
  • Heaton Shrestha, Celayne. 2006. Representing INGO-NGO Relations in Nepal: Are We being Donor-centric? Studies in Nepali History and Society 11(1): 65–96.
  • मार्टिन चौतारी । २०७४ ।  निर्देशित लोकतन्त्रतर्फ अर्को पाइला: प्रस्तावित समाजकल्याण तथा विकास ऐन, २०७३।
  • शोध संक्षेप २० । मा उपलब्ध ।
  • de Tocqueville, Alexis.1982[1980]. Chapter 1 and 2. In Alexis de Tocqueville on Democracy, Revolution and Society. Selected Writings. John Stone and Stephen Mennell, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

7. Development and the 'People's War'

  • Bhattarai, Baburam. 2003. The Political Economy of the People's War. In The People's War in Nepal: Left Perspective. Arjun Karki and David Seddon, ed., pp.117-164. New Delhi: Adroit.
  • Mishra, Chaitanya. 2009. Kun Itihas, Kun Marxvadra Kun Kranti? Rato Jhilko 1(1): 19-34.
  • Gersony, Robert. 2003. Section 3 and 6. Sowing the Wind…History and Dynamics of the Maoist Revolt in Nepal's Rapti Hills. Kathmandu: Mercy Corps International.
  • Paudel, Dinesh. 2016. The Double Life of Development: Empowerment, USAID and the Maoist Uprising in Nepal. Development and Change 47(5): 1025–1050.
  • Desai, Meghnad. 2002. Chapter 6. In Marx's Revenge: The Resurgence of Capitalism and the Death of Statist Socialism. London: Verso. 

8. Development in the post-conflict decade

  • Mishra, Chaitanya. 2015. What Led to the 2006 Democratic Revolution in Nepal? Kathmandu: Social Science Baha.
  • Des Chene, Mary. 2014. Development or Destruction. The Record. 11 October.
  • Sijapati, Bandita, Ang Sanu Lama, Jeevan Baniya, Jacob Rinck, Kalpana Jha and Amrita Gurung. 2017. Chapter 2. In Labour Migration and the Remittance Economy: The Socio-Political Impact. Kathmandu: Social Science Baha.
  • Gyawali, Dipak and Michael Thompson. 2016. Restoring Development Dharma with Toad’s Eye Science? Institute of Development Studies: States, Markets and Society – New Relationships for a New Development Era. 47(2A): 179-189.
- Bandana Gyawali

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